– Betoverd en behekst, Neerlands volksleven 33 (1983): 168-190.
– Van heksenprocessen naar toverij, Volkskundig bulletin 12 (1986): 2-30.
Summary: From witch trials to witchcraft.
Until recently the study of historical witchcraft in the Netherlands was dominated by Scheltema’s paradigm. Local historians published accounts of accidently discovered witch trials mainly to show their sharp contrast with nineteenth- and twentieth-century rationality. They took little interest in the social and cultural or judicial and economic contexts of witchcraft. Hence their answer to the question of why witch trials were stopped in the early seventeenth century – a comparatively early date – are unsatisfactory.
This essay draws attention to the changing vocabulary of witchcraft, from the different uses of the term ‘toverij’ , which denoted ‘white’ as well as ‘black’ witchcraft, to the now prevailing word ‘hekserij’. It also stresses the necessity to consider the local and regional judicial practices, consisting of witch trials, trials of cunning men and women, and slander trials. Examples of the last two categories, dating from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, are given to indicate a possible continuity in content despite differences in interpretation and context. Folklorists in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, by placing witchcraft in a ‘civilizing’ perspective, thereby focused mainly on witchcraft as legend. Their texts, as well as those from judicial and ecclesiastical sources, should be augmented with information about their contexts. Together, they could be used to generate systematic local and regional studies of the cultural and social production and reception of witchcraft and witchcraft accusations, extending from the Middle Ages to the present days.
– Meppelse toverij aan het eind van de achttiende eeuw, Volkskundig bulletin 12 (1986): 203-240.
English version in: Beyond the Witch Trials (2004).
– Heksenjacht als discussie: Nederlandse wetenschappers over Europese heksenvervolgingen, Volkscultuur: tijdschrift over tradities en tijdsverschijnselen 4.1 (1987): 57-74.
– Undersyk nei tjoenderij yn Fryslân, It beaken 49 (1987): 105-120.
– Doodstraf in Drenthe? Zestiende-eeuwse juridische procedures inzake toverij, in: Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra & Willem Frijhoff (red.), Nederland betoverd. Toverij en hekserij van de veeriende tot in de twintigste eeuw. Amsterdam: De Bataafse Leeuw (1987): 117-123.
– Vier eeuwen Friese duivelbanners, in: Nede